5.2.: Step 2: Exposure Estimation

5.2.1. The exposure shall be estimated for each exposure scenario developed and shall be presented under the relevant heading of the Chemical Safety Report and where required and in accordance with Article 31, summarised in an annex to the safety data sheet. The exposure estimation entails three elements: (1) emission estimation; (2) assessment of chemical fate and pathways; and (3) estimation of exposure levels.
5.2.2. The emission estimation shall consider the emissions during all relevant parts of the life-cycle of the substance resulting from the manufacture and each of the identified uses. The life-cycle stages resulting from the manufacture of the substance cover, where relevant, the waste stage. The life-cycle stages resulting from identified uses cover, where relevant, the service-life of articles and the waste stage. The emission estimation shall be performed under the assumption that the risk management measures and operational conditions described in the exposure scenario have been implemented.
5.2.3. A characterisation of possible degradation, transformation, or reaction processes and an estimation of environmental distribution and fate shall be performed.
5.2.4. An estimation of the exposure levels shall be performed for all human populations (workers, consumers and humans liable to exposure indirectly via the environment) and environmental spheres for which exposure to the substance is known or reasonably foreseeable. Each relevant route of human exposure (inhalation, oral, dermal and combined through all relevant routes and sources of exposure) shall be addressed. Such estimations shall take account of spatial and temporal variations in the exposure pattern. In particular, the exposure estimation shall take account of:
adequately measured, representative exposure data,
any major impurities and additives in the substance,
the quantity in which the substance is produced and/or imported,
the quantity for each identified use,
implemented or recommended risk management, including the degree of containment,
duration and frequency of exposure according to the operational conditions,
the activities of workers related to the processes and the duration and frequency of their exposure to the substance,
the activities of consumers and the duration and frequency of their exposure to the substance,
the duration and frequency of emissions of the substance to the different environmental compartments and the dilution in the receiving environmental compartment,
the physicochemical properties of the substance,
transformation and/or degradation products,
the likely routes of exposure of and potential for absorption in humans,
the likely pathways to the environment and environmental distribution and degradation and/or transformation (see also Section 3 Step 1),
scale (geographical) of exposure,
matrix dependent release/migration of the substance.
5.2.5. Where adequately measured representative exposure data are available, special consideration shall be given to them when conducting the exposure assessment. Appropriate models can be used for the estimation of exposure levels. Relevant monitoring data from substances with analogous use and exposure patterns or analogous properties can also be considered.