Article 25: Objectives and general rules

1.  In order to avoid animal testing, testing on vertebrate animals for the purposes of this Regulation shall be undertaken only as a last resort. It is also necessary to take measures limiting duplication of other tests.
2.  The sharing and joint submission of information in accordance with this Regulation shall concern technical data and in particular information related to the intrinsic properties of substances. Registrants shall refrain from exchanging information concerning their market behaviour, in particular as regards production capacities, production or sales volumes, import volumes or market shares.
3.  Any study summaries or robust study summaries of studies submitted in the framework of a registration under this Regulation at least 12 years previously can be used for the purposes of registration by another manufacturer or importer.