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exposure scenario


PREAMBLE: REACH - Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals     [go to this PREAMBLE]
... (60) For enforcement and evaluation purposes, downstream users of substances should be required to report to the Agency certain basic information if their use is outside the conditions of the exposure scenario detailed in the safety data sheet communicated by their original manufacturer or importer and to keep such reported information up-to-date. ...


ARTICLE-3: Definitions     [go to this ARTICLE]
... 37. exposure scenario: means the set of conditions, including operational conditions and risk management measures, that describe how the substance is manufactured or used during its life-cycle and how the manufacturer or importer controls, or recommends downstream users to control, exposures of humans and the environment. These exposure scenarios may cover one specific process or use or several processes or uses as appropriate; ...
... 38. use and exposure category: means an exposure scenario covering a wide range of processes or uses, where the processes or uses are communicated, as a minimum, in terms of the brief general description of use; ...


ARTICLE-14: Chemical safety report and duty to apply and recommend risk reduction measures     [go to this ARTICLE]
... (a) exposure assessment including the generation of exposure scenario(s) (or the identification of relevant use and exposure categories if appropriate) and exposure estimation; ...


ARTICLE-37: Downstream user chemical safety assessments and duty to identify, apply and recommend risk reduction measures     [go to this ARTICLE]
... 2. Any downstream user shall have the right to make a use, as a minimum the brief general description of use, known in writing (on paper or electronically) to the manufacturer, importer, downstream user or distributor who supplies him with a substance on its own or in a preparation with the aim of making this an identified use. In making a use known, he shall provide sufficient information to allow the manufacturer, importer or downstream user who has supplied the substance, to prepare an exposure scenario, or if appropriate a use and exposure category, for his use in the manufacturer, importer or downstream user's chemical safety assessment. ...
... Distributors shall pass on such information to the next actor or distributor up the supply chain. Downstream users in receipt of such information may prepare an exposure scenario for the identified use(s), or pass the information to the next actor up the supply chain. ...
... 4. A downstream user of a substance on its own or in a preparation shall prepare a chemical safety report in accordance with Annex XII for any use outside the conditions described in an exposure scenario or if appropriate a use and exposure category communicated to him in a safety data sheet or for any use his supplier advises against. ...
... (d) the downstream user implements or recommends an exposure scenario which includes as a minimum the conditions described in the exposure scenario communicated to him in the safety data sheet; ...
... (d) the downstream user implements or recommends an exposure scenario which includes as a minimum the conditions described in the exposure scenario communicated to him in the safety data sheet; ...


ARTICLE-I: GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR ASSESSING SUBSTANCES AND PREPARING CHEMICAL SAFETY REPORTS     [go to this ARTICLE]
... If the manufacturer or importer considers that further information is necessary for producing his chemical safety report and that this information can only be obtained by performing tests in accordance with Annex IX or X, he shall submit a proposal for a testing strategy, explaining why he considers that additional information is necessary and record this in the chemical safety report under the appropriate heading. While waiting for results of further testing, he shall record in his chemical safety report, and include in the exposure scenario developed, the interim risk management measures that he has put in place and those he recommends to downstream users intended to manage the risks being explored. ...
... 5.1. The generation of exposure scenario(s) or the generation of relevant use and exposure categories if appropriate. ...
... 0.7. The main element of the exposure part of the chemical safety report is the description of the exposure scenario(s) implemented for the manufacturer's production, the manufacturer or importer's own use, and those recommended by the manufacturer or importer to be implemented for the identified use(s). ...
... An exposure scenario is the set of conditions that describe how the substance is manufactured or used during its life-cycle and how the manufacturer or importer controls, or recommends downstream users to control, exposures of humans and the environment. These sets of conditions contain a description of both the risk management measures and operational conditions which the manufacturer or importer has implemented or recommends to be implemented by downstream users. ...
... If the substance is placed on the market, the relevant exposure scenario(s), including the risk management measures and operational conditions shall be included in an annex to the safety data sheet in accordance with Annex II. ...
... 0.8. The level of detail required in describing an exposure scenario will vary substantially from case to case, depending on the use of a substance, its hazardous properties and the amount of information available to the manufacturer or importer. Exposure scenarios may describe the appropriate risk management measures for several individual processes or uses of a substance. An exposure scenario may thereby cover a large range of processes or uses. Exposure scenarios covering a wide range of processes or uses may be referred to as Exposure Categories. Further mention of Exposure Scenario in this Annex and Annex II includes Exposure Categories if they are developed. ...
... 0.8. The level of detail required in describing an exposure scenario will vary substantially from case to case, depending on the use of a substance, its hazardous properties and the amount of information available to the manufacturer or importer. Exposure scenarios may describe the appropriate risk management measures for several individual processes or uses of a substance. An exposure scenario may thereby cover a large range of processes or uses. Exposure scenarios covering a wide range of processes or uses may be referred to as Exposure Categories. Further mention of Exposure Scenario in this Annex and Annex II includes Exposure Categories if they are developed. ...
... 0.8. The level of detail required in describing an exposure scenario will vary substantially from case to case, depending on the use of a substance, its hazardous properties and the amount of information available to the manufacturer or importer. Exposure scenarios may describe the appropriate risk management measures for several individual processes or uses of a substance. An exposure scenario may thereby cover a large range of processes or uses. Exposure scenarios covering a wide range of processes or uses may be referred to as Exposure Categories. Further mention of Exposure Scenario in this Annex and Annex II includes Exposure Categories if they are developed. ...
... 1.4.1. Based on the outcomes of steps 1 and 2, (a) DNEL(s) shall be established for the substance, reflecting the likely route(s), duration and frequency of exposure. For some endpoints, especially mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the available information may not enable a threshold, and therefore a DNEL, to be established. If justified by the exposure scenario(s), a single DNEL may be sufficient. However, taking into account the available information and the exposure scenario(s) in Section 9 of the Chemical Safety Report it may be necessary to identify different DNELs for each relevant human population (e.g. workers, consumers and humans liable to exposure indirectly via the environment) and possibly for certain vulnerable sub-populations (e.g. children, pregnant women) and for different routes of exposure. A full justification shall be given specifying, inter alia, the choice of the information used, the route of exposure (oral, dermal, inhalation) and the duration and frequency of exposure to the substance for which the DNEL is valid. If more than one route of exposure is likely to occur, then a DNEL shall be established for each route of exposure and for the exposure from all routes combined. When establishing the DNEL, the following factors shall, inter alia, be taken into account: ...
... 1.4.1. Based on the outcomes of steps 1 and 2, (a) DNEL(s) shall be established for the substance, reflecting the likely route(s), duration and frequency of exposure. For some endpoints, especially mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, the available information may not enable a threshold, and therefore a DNEL, to be established. If justified by the exposure scenario(s), a single DNEL may be sufficient. However, taking into account the available information and the exposure scenario(s) in Section 9 of the Chemical Safety Report it may be necessary to identify different DNELs for each relevant human population (e.g. workers, consumers and humans liable to exposure indirectly via the environment) and possibly for certain vulnerable sub-populations (e.g. children, pregnant women) and for different routes of exposure. A full justification shall be given specifying, inter alia, the choice of the information used, the route of exposure (oral, dermal, inhalation) and the duration and frequency of exposure to the substance for which the DNEL is valid. If more than one route of exposure is likely to occur, then a DNEL shall be established for each route of exposure and for the exposure from all routes combined. When establishing the DNEL, the following factors shall, inter alia, be taken into account: ...
... Step 1 : Generation of exposure scenario(s) or the generation of relevant use and exposure categories. ...
... Where required and in accordance with Article 31, the exposure scenario shall also be included in an annex to the Safety Data Sheet. ...
... 5.1.1. Exposure scenarios as described in Sections 0.7 and 0.8 shall be generated. Exposure scenarios are the core of the process to carry out a chemical safety assessment. The chemical safety assessment process may be iterative. The first assessment will be based on the required minimum and all available hazard information and on the exposure estimation that corresponds to the initial assumptions about the operating conditions and risk management measures (an initial exposure scenario). If the initial assumptions lead to a risk characterisation indicating that risks to human health and the environment are not adequately controlled, then it is necessary to carry out an iterative process with amendment of one or a number of factors in hazard or exposure assessment with the aim to demonstrate adequate control. The refinement of hazard assessment may require generation of additional hazard information. The refinement of exposure assessment may involve appropriate alteration of the operational conditions or risk management measures in the exposure scenario or more precise exposure estimation. The exposure scenario, resulting from the final iteration (a final exposure scenario), shall be included in the chemical safety report and attached to the safety data sheet in accordance with Article 31. ...
... 5.1.1. Exposure scenarios as described in Sections 0.7 and 0.8 shall be generated. Exposure scenarios are the core of the process to carry out a chemical safety assessment. The chemical safety assessment process may be iterative. The first assessment will be based on the required minimum and all available hazard information and on the exposure estimation that corresponds to the initial assumptions about the operating conditions and risk management measures (an initial exposure scenario). If the initial assumptions lead to a risk characterisation indicating that risks to human health and the environment are not adequately controlled, then it is necessary to carry out an iterative process with amendment of one or a number of factors in hazard or exposure assessment with the aim to demonstrate adequate control. The refinement of hazard assessment may require generation of additional hazard information. The refinement of exposure assessment may involve appropriate alteration of the operational conditions or risk management measures in the exposure scenario or more precise exposure estimation. The exposure scenario, resulting from the final iteration (a final exposure scenario), shall be included in the chemical safety report and attached to the safety data sheet in accordance with Article 31. ...
... 5.1.1. Exposure scenarios as described in Sections 0.7 and 0.8 shall be generated. Exposure scenarios are the core of the process to carry out a chemical safety assessment. The chemical safety assessment process may be iterative. The first assessment will be based on the required minimum and all available hazard information and on the exposure estimation that corresponds to the initial assumptions about the operating conditions and risk management measures (an initial exposure scenario). If the initial assumptions lead to a risk characterisation indicating that risks to human health and the environment are not adequately controlled, then it is necessary to carry out an iterative process with amendment of one or a number of factors in hazard or exposure assessment with the aim to demonstrate adequate control. The refinement of hazard assessment may require generation of additional hazard information. The refinement of exposure assessment may involve appropriate alteration of the operational conditions or risk management measures in the exposure scenario or more precise exposure estimation. The exposure scenario, resulting from the final iteration (a final exposure scenario), shall be included in the chemical safety report and attached to the safety data sheet in accordance with Article 31. ...
... 5.1.1. Exposure scenarios as described in Sections 0.7 and 0.8 shall be generated. Exposure scenarios are the core of the process to carry out a chemical safety assessment. The chemical safety assessment process may be iterative. The first assessment will be based on the required minimum and all available hazard information and on the exposure estimation that corresponds to the initial assumptions about the operating conditions and risk management measures (an initial exposure scenario). If the initial assumptions lead to a risk characterisation indicating that risks to human health and the environment are not adequately controlled, then it is necessary to carry out an iterative process with amendment of one or a number of factors in hazard or exposure assessment with the aim to demonstrate adequate control. The refinement of hazard assessment may require generation of additional hazard information. The refinement of exposure assessment may involve appropriate alteration of the operational conditions or risk management measures in the exposure scenario or more precise exposure estimation. The exposure scenario, resulting from the final iteration (a final exposure scenario), shall be included in the chemical safety report and attached to the safety data sheet in accordance with Article 31. ...
... The final exposure scenario shall be presented under the relevant heading of the chemical safety report, and included in an annex to the safety data sheet, using an appropriate short title giving a brief general description of the use, consistent with those given in Section 3.5 of Annex VI. Exposure scenarios shall cover any manufacture in the Community and all identified uses. ...
... In particular, an exposure scenario includes, where relevant, a description of: ...
... 5.2.1. The exposure shall be estimated for each exposure scenario developed and shall be presented under the relevant heading of the Chemical Safety Report and where required and in accordance with Article 31, summarised in an annex to the safety data sheet. The exposure estimation entails three elements: (1) emission estimation; (2) assessment of chemical fate and pathways; and (3) estimation of exposure levels. ...
... 5.2.2. The emission estimation shall consider the emissions during all relevant parts of the life-cycle of the substance resulting from the manufacture and each of the identified uses. The life-cycle stages resulting from the manufacture of the substance cover, where relevant, the waste stage. The life-cycle stages resulting from identified uses cover, where relevant, the service-life of articles and the waste stage. The emission estimation shall be performed under the assumption that the risk management measures and operational conditions described in the exposure scenario have been implemented. ...
... 6.1. The risk characterisation shall be carried out for each exposure scenario and shall be presented under the relevant heading of the Chemical Safety Report. ...
... 6.4. For any exposure scenario, the risk to humans and the environment can be considered to be adequately controlled, throughout the lifecycle of the substance that results from manufacture or identified uses, if: ...
... 6.5. For those human effects and those environmental spheres for which it was not possible to determine a DNEL or a PNEC, a qualitative assessment of the likelihood that effects are avoided when implementing the exposure scenario shall be carried out. ...
... 9.1. (Title of exposure scenario 1) ...
... 9.1.1. Exposure scenario ...
... 9.2. (Title of exposure scenario 2) ...
... 9.2.1. Exposure scenario ...
... 10.1. (Title of exposure scenario 1) ...
... 10.2. (Title of exposure scenario 2) ...


ARTICLE-II: GUIDE TO THE COMPILATION OF SAFETY DATA SHEETS     [go to this ARTICLE]
... This Annex sets out the requirements for a Safety Data Sheet that is provided for a substance or a preparation in accordance with Article 31. The Safety Data Sheet provides a mechanism for transmitting appropriate safety information on classified substances and preparations, including information from the relevant Chemical Safety Report(s) down the supply chain to the immediate downstream user(s). The information provided in the Safety Data Sheet shall be consistent with the information in the Chemical Safety Report, where one is required. Where a Chemical Safety Report has been performed, the relevant exposure scenario(s) shall be placed into an annex of the Safety Data Sheet, to make reference to them under the relevant headings of the Safety Data Sheet easier. ...


ARTICLE-XI: GENERAL RULES FOR ADAPTATION OF THE STANDARD TESTING REGIME SET OUT IN ANNEXES VII TO X     [go to this ARTICLE]
... 3.1. Testing in accordance with Sections 8.6 and 8.7 of Annex VIII, Annex IX and Annex X may be omitted, based on the exposure scenario(s) developed in the Chemical Safety Report. ...


ARTICLE-XII: GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR DOWNSTREAM USERS TO ASSESS SUBSTANCES AND PREPARE CHEMICAL SAFETY REPORTS     [go to this ARTICLE]
... STEP 1: DEVELOPMENT OF EXPOSURE SCENARIO(S) ...
... A risk characterisation shall be carried out for each new exposure scenario as prescribed in Section 6 of Annex I. The risk characterisation shall be presented under the relevant heading of the Chemical Safety Report and summarised in the Safety Data Sheet under the relevant heading(s). ...
... When generating an exposure scenario it will be necessary to make initial assumptions about the operating conditions and risk managements measures. If the initial assumptions lead to a risk characterisation indicating inadequate protection of human health and the environment, then it shall be necessary to carry out an iterative process with amendment of one or a number of factors until adequate control can be demonstrated. This may require the generation of additional hazard or exposure information or appropriate alteration of the process, operating conditions or risk management measures. Therefore, iterations may be made between on the one hand developing and revising an (initial) exposure scenario, which includes developing and implementing risk management measures, and on the other hand generating further information to produce the definitive exposure scenario. The purpose of generating further information is to establish a more precise risk characterisation, based on a refined hazard assessment and/or exposure assessment. ...
... When generating an exposure scenario it will be necessary to make initial assumptions about the operating conditions and risk managements measures. If the initial assumptions lead to a risk characterisation indicating inadequate protection of human health and the environment, then it shall be necessary to carry out an iterative process with amendment of one or a number of factors until adequate control can be demonstrated. This may require the generation of additional hazard or exposure information or appropriate alteration of the process, operating conditions or risk management measures. Therefore, iterations may be made between on the one hand developing and revising an (initial) exposure scenario, which includes developing and implementing risk management measures, and on the other hand generating further information to produce the definitive exposure scenario. The purpose of generating further information is to establish a more precise risk characterisation, based on a refined hazard assessment and/or exposure assessment. ...
... When generating an exposure scenario it will be necessary to make initial assumptions about the operating conditions and risk managements measures. If the initial assumptions lead to a risk characterisation indicating inadequate protection of human health and the environment, then it shall be necessary to carry out an iterative process with amendment of one or a number of factors until adequate control can be demonstrated. This may require the generation of additional hazard or exposure information or appropriate alteration of the process, operating conditions or risk management measures. Therefore, iterations may be made between on the one hand developing and revising an (initial) exposure scenario, which includes developing and implementing risk management measures, and on the other hand generating further information to produce the definitive exposure scenario. The purpose of generating further information is to establish a more precise risk characterisation, based on a refined hazard assessment and/or exposure assessment. ...